ConnectivityWeek in Silicon Valley –- Smart Grid, Beyond the Grid: Cleantech News and Analysis «

ConnectivityWeek in Silicon Valley –- Smart Grid, Beyond the Grid: Cleantech News and Analysis «

viaConnectivityWeek in Silicon Valley –- Smart Grid, Beyond the Grid: Cleantech News and Analysis «.


Über hinterauer

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Eine Antwort zu ConnectivityWeek in Silicon Valley –- Smart Grid, Beyond the Grid: Cleantech News and Analysis «

  1. hinterauer schreibt:

    suggestions. Concerning smart grid from Wikipedia-

    Smart grids are electricity networks that can intelligently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. A smart grid employs innovative products and services together with intelligent monitoring, control, communication, and self-healing technologies in order to:
    Better facilitate the connection and operation of generators of all sizes and technologies;
    Allow consumers to play a part in optimising the operation of the system;
    Provide consumers with greater information and options for choice of supply;
    Significantly reduce the environmental impact of the whole electricity supply system;
    Maintain or even improve the existing high levels of system reliability, quality and security of supply;
    Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently;[1]

    In the United States, the Smart Grid is a concept, defined [2] as the modernization of the nation’s electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth and to achieve each of the following, which together characterize a Smart Grid:
    (1) Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. (2) Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber-security. (3) Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources. (4) Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources, and energy-efficiency resources. (5) Deployment of `smart‘ technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation. (6) Integration of `smart‘ appliances and consumer devices. (7) Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and thermal-storage air conditioning. (8) Provision to consumers of timely information and control options. (9) Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid. (10) Identification and lowering of unreasonable or unnecessary barriers to adoption of smart grid technologies, practices, and services.

    [hide] 1 Goals 1.1 Respond to many conditions in supply and demand
    1.2 Smart energy demand
    1.3 Provision megabits, control power with kilobits, sell the rest
    1.4 Scale and scope 1.4.1 Municipal grid
    1.4.2 Home Area Network

    2 What a smart grid is
    3 Modernizes both transmission and distribution 3.1 Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing 3.1.1 Platform for advanced services
    3.1.2 US and UK savings estimates and assumptions behind them

    4 History 4.1 First cities with smart grids

    5 Problem definition
    6 Smart grid functions 6.1 Self-healing
    6.2 Consumer participation
    6.3 Resist attack
    6.4 High quality power
    6.5 Accommodate generation options
    6.6 Enable electricity market
    6.7 Optimize assets
    6.8 Enable high penetration of intermittent generation sources

    7 Features 7.1 Load adjustment
    7.2 Demand response support
    7.3 Greater resilience to loading
    7.4 Decentralization of power generation
    7.5 Price signaling to consumers

    8 Technology 8.1 Integrated communications
    8.2 Sensing and measurement 8.2.1 Smart meters
    8.2.2 Phasor measurement units

    8.3 Advanced components
    8.4 Advanced control
    8.5 Improved interfaces and decision support
    8.6 Standards and groups

    9 Recent studies 9.1 Obstacles

    10 Market outlook
    11 Deployments and deployment attempts 11.1 General economics developments

    12 Guidelines and Standards
    13 See also
    14 References
    15 External links


    In principle, the smart grid is a simple upgrade of 20th century power grids which generally „broadcast“ power from a few central power generators to a large number of users, to instead be capable of routing power in better ways to respond to a very wide range of conditions, and to charge a premium to those that use energy during peak hours.

    Respond to many conditions in supply and demand

    Broadly stated, a smart grid could respond to events which occur anywhere in the power generation, distribution and demand chain. Events may occur generally in the environment, e.g., clouds blocking the sun and reducing the amount of solar power or a very hot day requiring increased use of air conditioning. They could occur commercially in the power supply market, e.g., customers change their use of energy as prices are set to reduce energy use during high peak demand. Events might also occur locally on the distribution grid, e.g., an MV transformer fails, requiring a temporary shutdown of one distribution line. Finally these events might occur in the home, e.g., everyone leaves for work, putting various devices into hibernation, and data ceases to flow to an IPTV. Each event motivates a change to power flow.

    Latency of the data flow is a major concern, with some early smart meter architectures allowing actually as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data, preventing any possible reaction by either supplying or demanding devices.[3]

    Smart energy demand

    Smart energy demand describes the energy user component of the smart grid. It goes beyond and means much more than even energy efficiency and demand response combined. Smart energy demand is what delivers the majority of smart meter and smart grid benefits.

    Smart energy demand is a broad concept. It includes any energy-user actions to:
    Enhancement of reliability
    reduce peak demand,
    shift usage to off-peak hours,
    lower total energy consumption,
    actively manage electric vehicle charging,
    actively manage other usage to respond to solar, wind, and other renewable resources, and
    buy more efficient appliances and equipment over time based on a better understanding of how energy is used by each appliance or item of equipment.

    All of these actions minimize adverse impacts on electricity grids and maximize consumer savings.

    Smart Energy Demand mechanisms and tactics include:
    smart meters,
    dynamic pricing,
    smart thermostats and smart appliances,
    automated control of equipment,
    real-time and next day energy information feedback to electricity users,
    usage by appliance data, and
    scheduling and control of loads such as electric vehicle chargers, home area networks (HANs), and others.

    Provision megabits, control power with kilobits, sell the rest

    The amount of data required to perform monitoring and switching your appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching even remote homes to support voice, security, Internet and TV services. Many smart grid bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also support consumer services, and subsidizing the communications with energy-related services or subsidizing the energy-related services, such as higher rates during peak hours, with communications. This is particularly true where governments run both sets of services as a public monopoly, e.g. in India. Because power and communications companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to cooperate. Some, like Cisco, see opportunity in providing devices to consumers very similar to those they have long been providing to industry.[4] Others, such as Silver Spring Networks[5] or Google,[6][7] are data integrators rather than vendors of equipment. While the AC power control standards suggest powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among smart grid and home devices, the bits may not reach the home via Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless. This may be only an interim solution, however, as separate power and data connections defeats full control.

    Scale and scope

    Europe’s SuperSmart Grid, as well as earlier proposals (such as Al Gore’s continental Unified Smart Grid) make semantic distinctions between local and national grids that sometimes conflict. Papers [8] by Battaglini et al. associate the term „smart grid“ with local clusters (page 6), whereas the intelligent interconnecting backbone provides an additional layer of coordination above the local smart grids. Media use in both Europe and the US however tends to conflate national and local.

    Regardless of terminology used, smart grid projects always intend to allow the continental and national interconnection backbones to fail without causing local smart grids to fail. As in the case of existing utility infrastructure, they would have to be able to function independently and ration whatever power is available to critical needs.

    Municipal grid

    Before recent standards efforts, municipal governments, for example in Miami, Florida,[9] have historically taken the lead in enforcing integration standards for smart grids/meters. As municipalities or municipal electricity monopolies also often own some fiber optic backbones and control transit exchanges at which communication service providers meet, they are often well positioned to force good integration.

    Municipalities also have primary responsibility for emergency response and resilience, and would in most cases have the legal mandate to ration or provision power, say to ensure that hospitals and fire response and shelters have priority and receive whatever power is still available in a general outage.

    Home Area Network

    A Home Area Network, or „home grid“, extends some of these capabilities into the home using powerline networking and/or RF using standards such as ZigBee, INSTEON, Zwave, WiFi or others. In the smart grid, NIST is promoting interoperability between the different standards. OSHAN[10] is one initiative that enables interoperability in the home.

    Because of the communication standards both smart power grids and some Home Area Networks support more bandwidth than is required for power control and therefore may cost more than required. The existing 802.11 home networks generally have megabits of additional bandwidth for other services (burglary, fire, medical and environmental sensors and alarms, ULC and CCTV monitoring, access control and keying systems, intercoms and secure phone line services), and furthermore can’t be separated from LAN and VoIP networking, nor from TV once the IPTV standards have emerged.

    A number of companies have entered the Home Area Network space, such as Plug Smart, a brand of Juice Technologies, LLC, Tendril, Control4, and EnergyHub.

    Consumer electronics devices now consume over half the power in a typical US home. Accordingly, the ability to shut down or hibernate devices when they are not receiving data could be a major factor in cutting energy use, but this would mean the electric company has information on whether a consumer is using their computer or not.

    Other key devices that could aide in the utilities efforts to shed load during times of peak demand include air conditioning units, electric water heaters, pool pumps and other high wattage devices. In 2009, smart grid companies may represent one of the biggest and fastest growing sectors in the „cleantech“ market.[11] It consistently receives more than half the venture capital investment.

    In 2009 President Barack Obama asked the United States Congress „to act without delay“ to pass legislation that included doubling alternative energy production in the next three years and building a new electricity „smart grid“.[12] On April 13, 2009, George W. Arnold was named the first National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability.

    What a smart grid is

    The function of an Electrical grid is not a single entity but an aggregate of multiple networks and multiple power generation companies with multiple operators employing varying levels of communication and coordination, most of which is manually controlled. Smart grids increase the connectivity, automation and coordination between these suppliers, consumers and networks that perform either long distance transmission or local distribution tasks.
    Transmission networks move electricity in bulk over medium to long distances, are actively managed, and generally operate from 345kV to 800kV over AC and DC lines.
    Local networks traditionally moved power in one direction, „distributing“ the bulk power to consumers and businesses via lines operating at 132kV and lower.

    This paradigm is changing as businesses and homes begin generating more wind and solar electricity, enabling them to sell surplus energy back to their utilities. Modernization is necessary for energy consumption efficiency, real time management of power flows and to provide the bi-directional metering needed to compensate local producers of power. Although transmission networks are already controlled in real time, many in the US and European countries are antiquated[13] by world standards, and unable to handle modern challenges such as those posed by the intermittent nature of alternative electricity generation, or continental scale bulk energy transmission. In the U.S., excellent planning for expansion by largely regulated utilities in the 1960s and 1970s resulted in the accommodation of substantial growth with relatively little capital investment in the subsequent decades, when the economic pressures and uncertainty brought on by deregulation discouraged previously effective planning and expansion of the grid.

    Modernizes both transmission and distribution

    A smart grid is an umbrella term that covers modernization of both the transmission and distribution grids. The modernization is directed at a disparate set of goals including facilitating greater competition between providers, enabling greater use of variable energy sources, establishing the automation and monitoring capabilities needed for bulk transmission at cross continent distances, and enabling the use of market forces to drive energy conservation.

    Many smart grid features readily apparent to consumers such as smart meters serve the energy efficiency goal. The approach is to make it possible for energy suppliers to charge variable electric rates so that charges would reflect the large differences in cost of generating electricity during peak or off peak periods. Such capabilities allow load control switches to control large energy consuming devices such as hot water heaters so that they consume electricity when it is cheaper to produce.

    Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing

    To reduce demand during the high cost peak usage periods, communications and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home and business when energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when it is used. To motivate them to cut back use and perform what is called peak curtailment or peak leveling, prices of electricity are increased during high demand periods, and decreased during low demand periods. It is thought that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods. This could mean making trade-offs such as cooking dinner at 9pm instead of 5pm. When businesses and consumers see a direct economic benefit of using energy at off-peak times become more energy efficient, the theory is that they will include energy cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction decisions. See Time of day metering and demand response.

    According to proponents of smart grid plans,[who?] this will reduce the amount of spinning reserve that electric utilities have to keep on stand-by, as the load curve will level itself through a combination of „invisible hand“ free-market capitalism and central control of a large number of devices by power management services that pay consumers a portion of the peak power saved by turning their devices off.

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