Eine der wichtigen Aufgaben ist die Verwertung von Feststoffen aus thermischen oder nicht-thermischen Verfahren zur Energiegewinnung.

Eine vielfältige Nutzung bietet sich an. Der untenstehende link aus You tube gibt dazu eine einfache Erklährung.


„Garbage and other low-value materials make excellent starting materials for high-quality graphene, according to a study by  Rice University chemists in ACS Nano (DOI: 10.1021/nn202625c). The report describes a straightforward procedure to convert inexpensive sources of carbon—even   “negative value” materials such as dog feces—to ultrathin films of pure carbon.

Graphene’s large collection of outstanding mechanical, electronic, thermal, and other properties have prompted many scientists  to search for ways to prepare large sheets of this often one-atom-thin form of carbon. Several chemical vapor deposition methods           do that job well, but they generally require expensive substrates on which to grow graphene and/or reagents such as methane, acetylene, and organic solids that must be purified before use.

The Rice team, led by James M. Tour, has shown that there’s no need to use costly purified starting materials to grow graphene. The team, which also includes Gedeng Ruan, Zhengzong Sun, and Zhiwei Peng, prepared graphene from feces, grass, a cockroach           leg, bulk polystyrene, chocolate, and Girl Scout cookies.

In all cases, the group placed a solid sample on copper foil in a quartz boat and briefly heated the material to 1,050 °C  under a low-pressure hydrogen-argon flow. The team reports that residues containing several elements remained on the sample                           side of the foil after heat treatment. On the back side, however, they found pristine and nearly defect-free graphene, as    judged from analyses based on Raman, UV-visible, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and microscopy analysis.

“These results show convincingly that large-scale high-quality graphene can be grown from impure carbon sources with low or  negative values,” says Changgan Zeng of the University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei. “This is quite amazing, since   we usually assume that high-quality graphene requires pure carbon sources,” Zeng says. He adds that “the idea is brilliant,”   but the mechanism by which graphene forms on the back of the foil is still unknown.“

This is the most valuable product pruduced in a hight temperature, low  pressure system I have found untill now.

The oldest one is the production of terra preta by the Indios.   Another bunch of possibilities are mentioned by another author.

„I am one of the founders of the Pioneer Valley
Biochar Initiative with a website that may be found at and
is cencered at Belchertown, MA and interacts with the University of
Massachusetts in Amherst. We are concerned with the production and use of
biochar which mar serve to:

1. Sequester atmospheric CO2

2. Aid agricultural growth

3. Reduce fetilizer needs and

4. Provide a use for farm and forestry

5. Restore depleted and/or contaminated

6. Reduce need for water for agricultural

7. Render small farms more self-sufficient and
serve as a secondary energy source

I was co author of a paper on this
presented on Aug. 26 ant the Symposium on „Black Carbon“ at sessions of the
Environmental Chemistry Division of the Boston ACS meeting.  I shall be happy to
offer copies of the PowerPoints used for this presentation and of related papers
and videos.  For more information, please contact me at <> or by phone
at 413-549-0245. A pdf file of a pdf of the ACS presentation is attached as well
as one of URL’s of some of my postings on the web.“

Therefor I want to stress that in the case of thermic or enzymatic production of energy Synthesisgas, Green Diesel and Biochar. Biochar is a valuable „Byproduct“. Maybe all these processes should tend to maximize Green Hydrogen as the energycarrier of the future.


Über hinterauer

Pensionated Radiologist, interested in Green Chemistry, Technology, Environment and Share | var addthis_config = {"data_track_clickback":true}; nce.
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  1. hinterauer schreibt:

    Ein wertvoller Feststoff, der bei vielen thernischen Prozessen in der notwendigen Reinheit anfällt. Möglicherweise auch ein ausreichendes Bindemittel für CO2 und eine wertvolle Ergänzung in einer schadstoffarmen Landwirtschaft.

  2. hinterauer schreibt:

    Modifying Graphene Via A Classic Route

    ACS Meeting News: Textbook reaction offers customized, covalent functionalization of carbon material’s properties.
    Mitch Jacoby

    View Enlarged ImageAdapted from Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed.
    CLASSICALLY TAILORED Classic organic transformations can impart diverse functionality to graphene.

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    Topics Covered

    graphene, functionalized graphene, Claisen rearrangement

    Latest News
    August 31, 2011

    » ACS Meetings News

    Modifying Graphene Via A Classic Route

    ACS Meeting News: Textbook reaction offers customized, covalent functionalization of carbon material’s properties.

    BioAmber Will Expand Succinic Acid Production

    Scale-up: Firm selects Ontario site for intermediate chemical made by fermentation.

    Indole Changeup Yields Elusive Alkaloid

    ACS Meeting News: Cyclization and nitrene insertion star in synthesis.

    Entrepreneurial Focus Key To Job Creation

    ACS Task Force: Recommendations could lead to 100,000 new jobs in 20 years.

    Cheap, Simple Test Spots Protein-Protein Interactions

    Biological Assay: Using graphene oxide, a new method could help researchers find peptide-based drugs.

    Intoxicating Chemistry

    ACS Meeting News: In spirited research, chemists use brand-name liquors as solvents for organic syntheses.

    Text Size A A

    By applying a classic organic chemistry reaction to graphene, researchers at MIT have come up with a customizable route to covalently modify this ultrathin form of carbon. The work may lead to procedures for attaching various functional groups to graphene and hence altering its chemical and physical properties—a prerequisite to broadening the material’s applications.

    The research was led by MIT chemistry professor Timothy M. Swager, who reported on the work on Aug. 29 at a Division of Organic Chemistry symposium at the American Chemical Society national meeting in Denver. The group also published the study in Angewandte Chemie International Edition (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201101371).

    Because of graphene’s outstanding mechanical, electronic, thermal, and other properties, scientists in many countries are working on ways to exploit graphene in microelectronics, energy storage, and other applications. In many cases, the scope or performance of graphene-based applications or simply the ease of handling the material could be improved by chemically modifying it. Yet only a few such modifications have been developed.

    The MIT group has just extended that list by demonstrating that graphene can be functionalized via Claisen rearrangement chemistry. Specifically, the team showed that allylic alcohol groups on the surface of graphite oxide, a common starting material in graphene research, can be directly converted into carbon-bound N,N-dimethylamide groups by reacting graphite oxide with the commercial vinyl transfer agent N,N-dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal. The results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and other types of analyses.

    Then the group showed that additional functionality could be imparted to the graphene derivative by reacting the newly installed amide groups with potassium hydroxide solution. That process converted the amides into surface carboxylate groups, which increased the graphene derivative’s water solubility and its colloidal stability.

    „This method offers a powerful means to covalently attach functional groups to the surface of graphene,“ says University of Texas, Austin, chemistry professor Christopher W. Bielawski. „It is likely to pave the way to new carbon functionalization schemes.“

    Bielawski adds that despite graphene’s extraordinary properties, it remains challenging to manipulate the material. „There is good reason to believe that chemical modification will alleviate these challenges and enhance performance in applications,“ he says.

    Elaborating on that point, Bielawski notes that by modifying graphene with water-solubilizing functional groups, Swager’s team tailored the material’s solubility in aqueous media. „Now we can think about new ways of transferring graphene between various substrates—a basic manipulation that may accelerate development of graphene applications,“ he says.

    Chemical & Engineering NewsISSN 0009-2347 Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. hinterauer schreibt:

    A graphene oxide-based assay could provide chemists with an inexpensive means to detect protein-protein interactions (Anal. Chem., DOI: 10.1021/ac200617k).

    To discover peptide-based drug candidates, researchers often monitor how a disease-related protein interacts with libraries of small peptides. The biggest challenge is developing an easily measurable signal for when the proteins bind to peptides, says Chun-Hua Lu of Fuzhou University, in China. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy, which monitors the distance between fluorescent molecules attached to the proteins, is commonly used, but to generate a signal, it often requires a protein to change shape upon binding. To study proteins that don’t shape shift, Lu and his colleagues developed a more general approach.

    To the end of a peptide, the researchers attach pyrene and measure its fluorescence with a spectrometer. Then, they mix the tagged peptide with graphene oxide, which pyrene binds to. Graphene oxide, made from the same inexpensive graphite at the core of most pencils, quenches the fluorescent signal from the pyrene-bound peptide when pyrene stacks onto its flat surface. Finally, the researchers add the protein of interest. If it binds to the peptide, the tagged peptide leaves the graphene oxide and the fluorescent signal returns.

    The team tested the assay with a well-studied system: a peptide that is a hallmark of HIV infection along with a human antibody that binds it. They found that as little as 200 pM of the antibody rekindled pyrene’s glow.

    To test their method further, the researchers next applied the antibody in samples of human saliva and serum, which contain molecules that could disrupt the protein-peptide interaction. Even with the additional chemicals present, the assay had detection limits of 2 nM in saliva and 5 nM in a solution made from human serum. These limits match those of existing methods, Lu says.

    To test their method with other protein-peptide pairs, the researchers successfully detected binding between different peptides and a second HIV antibody, as well as with a protein called α-bungarotoxin from snake venom.

    Kevin Plaxco of the University of California, Santa Barbara, is „cautiously optimistic“ about the new assay. Since Lu’s team looked at three different protein-peptide systems, he says the method probably works more broadly, but he thinks more research is needed to prove it.

  4. hinterauer schreibt:

    Und da wäre noch eine Anwendung:

    I have been hearing about carbon nanotubes for a while now, and they are indeed very promising, as this news proves:

    Rice University researchers have developed a carbon-nanotube-based cable that is able to carry as much electric current as copper, and it is lighter. This has potential sustainability, durability and efficiency advantages.

    Hollow pure carbon nanotube wires are an order of magnitude more electrically conductive than copper, and copper is actually the best electrical conductor in widespread use today.

    Sustainability: The sustainability advantage is that it can be made of pure carbon, which is an abundant element that does not have the demand and supply issues that copper does. Copper has gotten expensive and has thus driven up the cost of generators, electric motors, most electronics, and everything else that requires significant amounts of copper wire.

    Another sustainability advantage is that it helps to facilitate the use of sustainable energy sources such as wind farms and solar power plants, which are often very far from civilization in deserts and out on plains. The long distance of some wind farms from civilization is a problem because long cables are required to transmit the electricity to civilization, and longer cables have a higher electrical resistance, and waste more electricity.

    As copper is a non-renewable metal that is mined from the earth (like iron and other metals), this problem will get worse, but recycling has been helping to offset demand for mined copper and recycling is expected to increase in the future as mined copper becomes more expensive. It will become absolutely necessary.

    Durability: Carbon-nanotube-based materials can be and often are significantly stronger and lighter than copper, steel and aluminium. This is good for automobiles, aircrafts, and basically everything that moves or is portable. Carbon nanotubes do not rust or corrode. They are not brittle like some metals are (they are actually flexible and malleable), and they are also thermally conductive.

    Improved thermal conductivity is actually beneficial to electrical conductivity because it radiates more of the heat than it generates, so it operates cooler and resistance to the flow of electric current increases with the temperature of the wire.

    How these carbon nanotube cables are made:
    1.They start by removing impurities from a lump of double-walled carbon nanotubes.
    2.They add sulfuric acid so that the lump can be spread out into a thin film.
    3.Tweezers are used to grip the edges of the film and twist it into a fiber.
    4.Finally, the sulfuric acid is rinsed off and the cable is exposed to iodine vapour at a high temperature, which penetrates into the nanotubes inside the cable, increasing conductivity.

    The Rice University researchers said that extending the length of the cable has no measurable effect on conductivity, which is good news for electricity transmission.

    More on carbon nanotubes and related stories:
    1.Samsung Demonstrates World’s First Carbon-Nanotube Based Display
    2.London Calling: Nexans to Supply Undersea Cable for World’s Largest Wind Farm
    3.Quick-Charge Batteries Get a Boost from Defective Carbon Nanotubes

    Source: Clean Technica (

  5. Pingback: BIOCHAR, BIOKOHLE, TERRA PRETA. | Lorenz Hinterauer Blog « rudolfhinterauer

  6. rudolfhinterauer schreibt:

    Reblogged this on rudolfhinterauer und kommentierte:
    An Essential.

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