Klartext No 50 – Arno A.Evers – Energiewende auf der Erde « kulturstudio


Klartext No 50 – Arno A.Evers – Energiewende auf der Erde « kulturstudio. Persönlichkeiten um die 4. Re-Evolution durchzusetzen sind gefragt.

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Über hinterauer

Pensionated Radiologist, interested in Green Chemistry, Technology, Environment and Share | var addthis_config = {"data_track_clickback":true}; nce.
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2 Antworten zu Klartext No 50 – Arno A.Evers – Energiewende auf der Erde « kulturstudio

  1. hinterauer schreibt:

    Copied: „Valuing Reversible Energy Storage“ by John R. Miller to demonstrate the prices an technologies in 2012. This will change by numbers of possibilities and prices in the close future.
    „UNIVERSITY

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    Usually the second question asked is the cost, the most popular metric being “cost per unit of energy” ($/kWh). The table lists the three types of capacitors and two different battery technologies, using dollars per kilowatt-hour as the cost metric (7). The value for electrostatic capacitors (metalized-film capacitors) is $2.5 million per kWh. Electrolytic capacitors cost $1 million per kWh. Curiously despite such extremely high costs, both technologies are found in almost every piece of electronics available today. Much lower in cost, at a mere $20,000 per kWh, are ECs (8). But the stark comparison to lithium-ion batteries at $1000 or lead acid batteries at $150 per kWh suggests that $/kWh is not actually a very important metric in some decision-making. Cost is but one of the many ways by which storage technology can be measured, and again it may be one of the least important when it comes to assessing the value of an energy storage technology for use in applications.

    Reversibility, essentially the efficiency of a round-trip cycle that first stores then later uses the stored energy, is also an important metric for energy storage technology in many present and emerging applications. Unlike money that may be deposited in an honest savings bank that later is totally returned and often with interest, energy deposited in any storage device has associated losses that prevents the full return. Then the question is what fraction of the deposited energy will eventually be returned. This strongly depends on the storage media as well as the rate at which energy is stored, the storage time, and the rate at which energy is extracted (9). Unlike batteries that typically have higher losses during charge than during discharge, ECs can be totally charged and discharged very quickly with high efficiency. Energy reversibility is often a most important factor in establishing the value of a storage technology for many of today’s energy conservation applications.

    Cycle life goes hand-in-hand in importance with energy reversibility. Some energy conservation applications, for example, regenerative energy capture during the stopping of a hybrid city transit bus, may require more than 1 million charge/discharge cycles during their operational life. A storage system can be replaced several times or “supersized” to reduce the depth of discharge in each cycle and increase cycle life, practices commonly used for battery technologies. However, both approaches mean that the storage system will have higher cost. ECs, by contrast, rely on physical rather than chemical storage and do not suffer from limitations of cycle life. They effectively can be “right-sized” at the start and last the entire life of a given application. In short, cycle life can impart great value to an energy storage technology.

    Storage system shape is another factor that may have high value in some applications. Energy density advantages generally can be best achieved with shapes approaching a cube, whereas power density advantages can be best achieved with thin, large-area designs. A given energy storage technology may lend itself to either one of these extremes. Besides offering power advantages, very thin energy storage devices may enable a broad range of new applications. If these devices have mechanical flexibility, then there are even more potential applications. One example is a fabric EC that is charged by piezoelectric transducers that harvest and store body-movement energy. This would allow the creation of “smart” garments for making fashion statements or to power flexible electronics that may be embedded in a military uniform (see the figure). Other examples include energy storage for use in camouflage, for car interiors, and to make electronic wall paper.

    An interesting feature of the conversion process reported by El-Kady et al. is that graphene patterns can be “laser scribed” directly onto very thin graphene oxide deposits (10). As one example, interdigitated planar structures of graphene can be created, which after receiving an electrolyte overcoat become planar ECs. This route for producing extremely thin and highly flexible energy storage structures is quite exciting and shows great promise.

    References and Notes
    1.↵

    M. F. El-Kady,
    V. Strong,
    S. Dubin,
    R. B. Kaner
    , Science 335, 1326 (2012).
    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    2.↵

    L. T. Le,
    M. H. Ervin,
    H. Qiu,
    B. E. Fuchs,
    W. Y. Lee
    , Electrochem. Commun. 13, 355 (2011).
    CrossRef

    3.↵

    X. Shao
    et al
    ., J. Power Sources 194, 1208 (2009).
    CrossRefWeb of Science

    4.↵

    J. R. Miller,
    R. A. Outlaw,
    B. C. Holloway
    , Science 329, 1637 (2010).
    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    5.↵

    Y. Gogotsi,
    P. Simon
    , Science 334, 917 (2011).
    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    6.↵

    J. R. Miller
    , Batteries Energy Storage Technol. 35, 115 (2012).

    7.↵Capacitor costs were derived by using the largest commercial products available.
    8.↵ECs are sometimes referred to by the product names supercapacitor or ultracapacitor.
    9.↵

    J. R. Miller
    et al
    ., Electrochem. Soc. Interface 17, 53 (2008).

    10.↵

    V. Strong
    et al
    ., ACS Nano 6, 1395 (2012).
    CrossRefMedline“ And the literatur shows, that there is a consent more or less around the whole world.

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